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Genetically modified organisms (GMO) or genetically engineered foods (GE) are currently a hot topic, especially as the fight to label GMO foods intensifies. Although a confusing topic, GMOs are not completely understood by many people. Check out our GMO Q&A to learn all about GMOs, the current research and policy regulations and why this issue is important to be aware of.

What does the literature say regarding the health of animals?

A search of peer-reviewed literature and field observations of animals fed diets with GMO crops have shown no adverse results in the animal performance or health indicators (2).

What is the defense for GMO advocates?

A comprehensive analysis of 147 different studies was published by German university professors and reported that the benefits were significant not only in the US but also in the developing world. This analysis has estimated that chemical pesticide use has been reduced by 37%, increased yields by 22% and increased farmer profits by 68%.

What does GMO mean?

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) is defined as the manipulation of an organism’s genes by introducing, eliminating, or rearranging specific genes in a laboratory using genetic engineering such as recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid techniques. Genetic engineering modifies the genetic material between organisms in ways that would not take place naturally, bringing about alterations in the genetic makeup and properties of the organism.

What are some examples of GMOs?

  • Genetically modified cauliflower is orange because of a gene that was incorporated into it in order to increase its production of beta-carotene (the precursor to vitamin A).
  • Genetically modified corn, broccoli, and potatoes have received a gene from a bacterium that produces a protein that is toxic to leaf-chewing caterpillars.
  • Genetically modified potatoes can now produce a beetle-killing toxin in their leaves.

Are GMO’s safe?

The US FDA does not have a mandatory food safety assessment process for GM foods.

The FDA looks at the data that is provided by the manufacturer and does a voluntary analysis before it goes to market. Food producers are allowed to put any GMO on the market without having to notify the FDA because it considers GMO foods as “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS).

The following agencies in the United States help regulate food derived from GE crops:

  • US FDA
  • US Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

What agencies consider GMOs as safe?

Organizations such as the American Medical Association, World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the British Royal Society among many other major science institutions and regulatory agencies have agreed on the long term safety of food grown from GMOs.

Worldwide, regulators approve GM foods as safe based on the concept of “substantial equivalence”. Substantial equivalence means a GMO food product contains similar amounts of protein, fat, and carbohydrates as its non-GMO counterpart. However, any food product that has a new substance engineered into it must meet the same safety standards that food additives do. Additionally, GMO foods that are substantially different from their traditional counterpart require labeling.

How do GMO food producers ensure safety?

According to Monsanto, genetically engineered crops go through the following process before they submit to regulatory agencies (such as the FDA) for approval:

  • Test to ensure the inserted gene is safe and the protein produced is safe.
  • Product Safety Center does further testing by conducting safety assessments.
  • Compositional Analysis: comparative safety assessment testing the GE product is compositionally and nutritionally the same as the conventional product.
  • Animal Performance Assessments are performed to ensure food and feed from GE products are safe —study the development and size of the animal as it’s fed the product with the new gene inserted.
  • Environmental Safety: a study of the plant’s impact on the environment that includes growth, development, interactions with insects, diseases and other stresses. 

Why were GMO foods introduced into the food system?

  • Make agriculture more sustainable
  • Provide higher yields to feed the world’s growing population
  • Reduce pesticide use by modifying organism to have the ability to kill insects
  • Engineer crops to withstand herbicides
  • Help meet the challenges of climate change
  • Provide more nutritious foods

What do opponents of GMO claim?

  • GMO is laboratory-made, using technology that is totally different from natural breeding methods, and pose different risks from non-GM crops
  • GMOs can be toxic, allergenic or less nutritious than their natural counterparts
  • GMOs are not adequately regulated to ensure safety
  • GMOs do not increase yield potential
  • GMOs do not reduce pesticide use but increase it
  • GMOs create serious problems for farmers, including herbicide-tolerant “superweeds”, compromised soil quality, and increased disease susceptibility in crops
  • GMOs have mixed economic effects and disrupt markets
  • GMOs harm soil quality, disrupt ecosystems, and reduce biodiversity
  • GMOs do not offer effective solutions to climate change
  • GMOs are as energy-hungry as any other chemically-farmed crops

What are the suspected long term consequences?

Opponents also argue that most animal feeding studies on GMOs are short-term or medium-term in length and are therefore not long enough to show long-term (chronic) effects such as organ failure, cancer, or reproductive problems. They feel long-term and multi-generational studies on GMOs need to be implemented to assess whether the signs of toxicity reported in shorter studies actually develop into serious diseases.

How can I avoid GMO products?

Consuming organic food is currently the best was to ensure you are not eating GMO food. The use of genetically modified organisms is prohibited in organic food products. To meet the USDA organic regulations, farmers and food processors must show they are not using GMOs and that they are also protecting their products from any physical contact with GMOs.

Additionally, the non-GMO project, a non-profit organization, verifies non-GMO food products. Many foods sold at the supermarket are labeled with the non-GMO project label certifying the product is free of GMOs.

What is the consumer stance?

According to Consumer Reports National Research Center survey, 70% of Americans say they do not want GMOs in their food and 92% want GM foods to be labeled. Due to the public’s concern about health and environmental risks associated with GMO consumption, many states are taking political action independently in lieu of the federal government’s absence of doing so. For instance, Vermont recently passed legislation requiring GMO labeling.

What foods are commonly GMO?

Corn and soy are the two crops most popular GMO crops produced in the United States.

What is selective breeding?

Selective breeding combines many genes from two varieties of the same species to produce a variety that possesses the desired characteristics.

Which states require GMO labeling?

To date, Maine and Connecticut have passed bills that will require the labeling of GMOs. For both states, the legislation will not go into effect until neighboring states pass similar labeling laws. Vermont has also passed a GMO labeling bill that will go into effect in 2016.


Sources/More Information:

The Potential Impacts of Mandatory Labeling for Genetically Engineered Food in the United States. CAST Issue Paper April 2014 (Number 54) Accessed December 5, 2014.

Intelligence Squared Debates. Genetically Modify Food. December 3, 2014. Accessed December 5, 2014.

Genetic Literacy Project website. Accessed December 9, 2014.

Fagan J, Antoniou M, Robinson, C. GMO Myths and Truths: An evidence-based examination of the claims made for the safety and efficacy of genetically modified crops and foods, 2nd Edition. Earth Open Source. Accessed December 9, 2014.

Rock, A. Where GMOs hide in your food. Consumer Reports Org website. October 2014. Accessed December 11, 2014.

GMO Facts. Non GMO Project website. Accessed December 9, 2014.

Wilson, R. Main becomes second state to require GMO labels. Washington Post. January 10, 2014 Accessed December 16, 2014.

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Susan started Savor Health after losing a close friend to a brain tumor and, through that experience, becoming aware of the significant unmet nutritional needs of people with cancer.  Struck by the fact that her friend was told “nutrition doesn’t matter” and “eat whatever you want,” Susan read the evidence-based literature on the subject, interviewed oncologists, oncology nurses and oncology dietitians, as well as patients and caregivers, and found that, in fact, nutrition does matter in oncology. Armed with solid scientific evidence supporting the clinical and quality of life benefits of proper nutrition, Susan left Wall Street and created Savor Health, an AI-based provider of personalized and clinically appropriate nutrition solutions for cancer patients, their caregivers and health enterprises. Susan brings to Savor Health over 25 years of industry experience in healthcare and business as well as expertise in strategy, finance and management.

Susan is an outspoken and tireless advocate for cancer patients receiving proper nutrition and nutrition support before, during and after treatment. She strongly believes that the U. S. healthcare system requires new innovation to transform it into a more holistic and integrated system of care whereby multiple disciplines coordinate care together for the benefit of the whole patient. As part of this, her goal is for nutrition to be an integral component of such an integrated cancer care delivery system.  Susan’s commitment to the field of oncology extends beyond Savor Health to volunteer work at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in pediatrics and as a runner for Fred’s Team to raise money for research at Memorial Sloan Kettering. Susan participated in the Cancer Moonshot in June of 2016 where she was a breakout session group “igniter” tasked with starting and leading discussion. Susan’s first book, the Meals to Heal Cancer Cookbook, was published in March 2016.

In addition to her role as CEO of Savor Health, Susan speaks nationally about the importance of ensuring proper nutrition in the cancer patient and on topics including leadership and startups. She has been a speaker at the Harvard Medical School’s Career Advancement and Leadership Skills for Women in Healthcare, ESMO World Congress on GI Cancer, BioPharm America, AARP Live @50+, Lake Nona Impact Forum, and IIR ePharma Summit.

Prior to starting Savor Health, Susan had a successful career on Wall Street as a healthcare services investment banker working at prestigious firms including Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette, Wasserstein Perella and Robertson Stephens. Susan earned a B.A. from Duke University and M.B.A. from the University of Virginia’s Darden Graduate School of Business.

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Marissa Buchan is a registered dietitian, with advanced practice certifications in Oncology Nutrition (CSO) and Clinical Research (CCRP). She received her Bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Duke University, and Master’s of Science degree in Clinical Nutrition from New York University. Marissa worked for 10 years at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in both the clinical research and nutrition departments.  In addition to counseling patients before, during, and after cancer therapy, she spearheaded nutrition-research efforts for the bone marrow transplant service. She has co-authored over 20 articles and has a particular interest in the role of nutrition on the intestinal microbiota and its impact on patient outcomes. When Marissa’s not wearing her lab coat, she’s in her apron whipping up healthy and delicious recipes that you can find on her blog, Get Off Your Tush and Cook.

Marissa is Chief Operating Officer of Savor Health where she leads operations working with the technology, clinical, and business development teams and management. Prior to assuming the role of COO in March 2020, Marissa was Vice President, Clinical Research and Operations at Savor Health where she worked closely with Savor Health’s Chief Medical Advisor, Scientific Advisory Board, and Clinical Operations Team to evaluate, design and conduct clinical research.  She also counsels patients on oncology nutrition issues and contributes to the Company website’s clinical content.

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Dr. DeFrance has a unique background including clinical interventional cardiologist, chief medical officer, educator, outcomes researcher and entrepreneur. He has expertise in Lifestyle medicine in which he was board certified in 2020 and is highly interested in the prevention and reversal of chronic disease. Dr. DeFrance also has expertise in appropriate utilization of technology in medicine, healthcare economics, value-based metrics, and educational design and delivery. He worked as Chief Medical Officer for HealthHelp, one of the largest specialty benefit managers in the US, and led large teams of healthcare professionals in writing evidence based appropriate care guidelines and rule sets which improve the quality and safety of medicine for over 20 million people in the US while also creating sustained savings in healthcare. He has also designed clinical decision support systems that are currently in use helping to improve patient care.

In 2018 Dr. DeFrance founded MedMentor Education, a company that provides state of the art CME content using the latest in eLearning science and online delivery platforms. Dr. DeFrance is also the founder and President of Digimedica, a consulting and educational design and delivery company for healthcare professionals, hospitals, and universities. He is passionate about creating systems to optimize knowledge transfer and has won numerous awards for teaching excellence during his career. He is an expert in cardiovascular CT imaging and has taught more than 3,000 physicians how to perform and interpret cardiac CT nationally and internationally and has lectured extensively on this subject.

Dr. DeFrance has a stellar reputation in the medical field and continues work to improve the quality and safety of patient care in the US.

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Alyson is a registered nurse and is certified in oncology nursing (OCN) through the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS). She also has her certification as an ONS Biotherapy and Chemotherapy Provider. Alyson studied nursing at Thomas Jefferson University where she obtained her Bachelor’s of Science in Nursing (BSN). Since starting her nursing career in 2004, Alyson has had a strong dedication and commitment to oncology patients. She has worked inpatient specializing in Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Alyson currently works in outpatient oncology at the North Shore-LIJ Monter Cancer Center. Alyson is part of the clinical team at Savor Health where she counsels patients on oncology and oncology nutrition issues and contributes to website and other Savor Health content.

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Chelsey is a Registered Dietitian and Board Certified Specialist in Oncology nutrition (CSO). She completed her Dietetic Internship at Northwell Health, received her BS in Dietetics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and her MS in Nutrition at Stony Brook University’s School of Medicine. Chelsey works as an outpatient dietitian at Mount Sinai covering all of the downtown cancer services at Mount Sinai Beth Israel and Philips Ambulatory Care Center. Chelsey works with patients and families before, during and after treatment to optimize their nutrition through dietary counseling and support. Chelsey has experience counseling clients with a variety of diagnoses including breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, head & neck cancer, and more. Chelsey also enjoys sharing nutrition knowledge with her peers by running a monthly Employee Wellness program that showcases healthy topics, recipes and food demos.

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Michelle is a Registered Dietitian specializing in oncology. She works as a clinical dietitian at an ambulatory cancer center in New York City and is a consultant for Savor Health. She is passionate about educating oncology patients on the importance of nutrition during their fight against cancer and helping them to optimize their nutrition through all phases of treatment. Michelle received her Bachelor of Science degree in dietetics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and her Master of Science degree in Clinical Nutrition from New York University.

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Denise Sievering is a Registered Dietitian who is board certified in Oncology Nutrition as well as Nutrition Support. A fluent Spanish speaker, Denise joined the Savor Health team to support Spanish speaking cancer patients and to continue to expand the Platform’s nutritional strategies and recommendations in Spanish. Denise holds a Bachelor of Science degree from Rutgers University, and completed her internship at New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYP). Denise started her career as a registered dietitian at NYP-Columbia University Medical Center, primarily covering inpatient Oncology units. Denise also holds a Master of Arts degree in Mental Health Counseling from New York University, and incorporates her advanced training in motivational interviewing and empathic listening in her patient encounters, particularly those whose lives have been forever changed by a cancer diagnosis. A New Jersey native, Denise now resides in sunny San Diego, CA where she works as a part-time outpatient Oncology dietitian at Scripps Health-MD Anderson Cancer Center, and also works as an inpatient dietitian at Kaiser Permanente. In her spare time, Denise can be found at a mom-and-pop taco shop, one of the many local craft breweries, and exploring her new city of San Diego with her husband and her rescue pup, Ripley.

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Karen is a Registered Dietitian, Board Certified Specialist in Oncology Nutrition and registered in New York as a Certified Dietitian Nutritionist. Fluent in Spanish, Karen joined the Savor Health team to support Spanish speaking cancer patients and to continue to expand the Platform’s nutritional strategies and recommendations in Spanish. Karen received her Bachelor of Science degree from Ithaca College and her Master of Science degree from Hunter College. She works as an outpatient oncology dietitian in New York. Karen often works with local community centers to host nutrition programs for cancer survivors and their families, leading classes on how to live healthier lifestyles throughout their continuum of care. The American Institute of Cancer Research selected to showcase one of her many programs at their conference in 2019. Karen has written for and lent commentary to various publications and truly enjoys teaching people how to eat better. She loves to cook and strongly feels that healthy food doesn’t have to taste bad.

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Allie is a Registered Dietitian and a Certified Specialist in Oncology (CSO). She joins Savor in 2023, bringing years of experience from the John Theurer Cancer Center in New Jersey, where she worked with patients with a variety of cancers. Her goal is to help people feel their best, both mentally and physically, when physical health challenges arise. She believes in the power of nutrition ever since the impact it made on her athletic career as a volleyball player during college. Allie graduated with her Bachelor of Science degree from University of Maryland-Baltimore County and has her Master’s degree in Human Nutrition from the University of Wisconsin Stout. She enjoys travelling, enjoying different cuisines, cooking, and hiking and other outdoor activities with her family and dog.

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Julia Penberg is a seasoned healthcare professional with more than 30 years of experience focusing on maximizing operational excellence, leading clinical program development and building strong cross-functional teams. Her previous roles include overseeing the performance of clinical managers and nurse practitioners across multiple markets within United Healthcare-Optum’s Medicare Advantage and dual-eligible special needs populations, payer outreach and program development at Mayo Clinic, ground level specialty hospital development and direct patient care as a family and dermatology nurse practitioner. Julia volunteered as an operating room nurse and nurse practitioner on several mission trips to Romania and was a support group leader for the Kansas City chapter of the International Myeloma Foundation. Her motivation throughout her career has been with wellness promotion, disease risk modification and ensuring the best patient experience across the health continuum. Ms. Penberg received an MBA from the University of Dallas; a MS in Nursing from the University of Kansas and a BS in Nursing from the University of Texas-Austin. She is board certified as a Family Nurse Practitioner.

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Rachel is a Registered Dietitian and Board Certified Specialist in Oncology Nutrition (“CSO”). She joined NYP-Columbia as the outpatient oncology dietitian in 2020 after working at Jamaica Hospital Medical Center for two years. Rachel completed her dietetic internship through Keene State College in 2017. She is pursuing an MS in Integrative Nutrition at Stony Brook University and has a BS in Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise from Virginia Tech. Rachel provides nutrition counseling to all types of oncology patients and helps them understand the mental and physical benefits of nutrition as an ally in their fight against cancer. In her free time she enjoys slow meals with family and friends, Pilates, and tending to her fire escape garden.

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Allie Werner is a Registered Dietitian at Fresenius Kidney Care where she provides medical nutrition therapy diet counseling to patients on Dialysis. She received her Bachelor’s Degree in nutrition from Indiana University and completed her Master’s Degree and dietetic internship at Loyola University Chicago. In her free time she enjoys spending time with friends and family, checking out the amazing food scene in downtown Chicago, and exercising on her Peloton bike.

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Immersed in the tech world for a decade, I've coded, led teams, and honed my skills in architecture and design. As a tech enthusiast, I've seamlessly woven through full-stack projects, fusing my love for code with the art of leadership.

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Mohit is a full-stack developer with expertise in Python and JavaScript, known for his efficient coding and ability to deliver scalable software solutions. His technical contributions are highlighted on GitHub and Stack Overflow, demonstrating his commitment to the tech community and problem-solving skills. With a solid educational foundation and a diverse project portfolio, Mohit excels at navigating complex challenges and is well-equipped to contribute to dynamic software projects.

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Rayna McCann is a Registered Dietitian and Board Certified Specialist in Oncology Nutrition. She is a Registered Yoga Teacher and yoga4cancer certified. She received her BS in Nutrition at Penn State University and her MS from Stony Brook University. For work, Rayna wears many hats in the world of nutrition and worked for years in clinical settings focusing on oncology nutrition. She is also an Adjunct Professor and passionate about inspiring the future of dietitians. Throughout her career, she has received awards recognizing her dedication to patient safety and her contributions to improving malnutrition awareness. In 2022, Rayna was proud to accept the ‘Dietitian of the Year’ award through the Long Island Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Rayna has co-authored abstracts for poster presentations within the American Institute for Cancer Research conference, as well as, the Nutrition and Dietetics Food and Nutrition Conference Expo and subsequent publication. She has enjoyed authoring articles, including an article for The Cure magazine regarding Multiple Myeloma and nutrition. When Rayna is not participating in nutrition related activities, she is dedicated to dog rescue.

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