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Cancer treatment has come a long way — today’s treatments are more effective and have fewer side effects. However, treatment can still be difficult to endure and have a huge negative impact on your life. Many instances of prostate cancer advance very slowly, meaning the cancer will not spread or grow large enough to impact your life before you die from another cause. Therefore accessing effective prostate cancer treatments quickly will significantly increase you’re chances of survival or extend your life dramatically. 

 

Common treatment options by stage

Stage I Watchful waiting

Radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy

Stage II Radical prostatectomy

External beam radiation and brachytherapy, alone or combined

Stage III Combinations of external beam radiation, hormone therapy, brachytherapy, and radical prostatectomy
Stage IV Watchful waiting

Hormone therapy, sometimes with chemotherapy

Combinations of external beam radiation, brachytherapy, and hormone therapy

Radical prostatectomy

TURP surgery

Bone metastases treatments

 

Watchful waiting

If you have a non-aggressive cancer and it has not spread, many doctors will suggest active surveillance. So long as the cancer does not grow or spread, people can live their lives without the negative impact of cancer treatment. If the cancer eventually grows or spreads, you can work with your treatment team to choose how to respond.

With active surveillance, your doctor will typically run tests every 6 months. Tests often include your PSA blood test and a digital rectal exam. Doctors may perform annual biopsies. Even if you ultimately do undergo treatment, you can enjoy additional months or years of life without worrying about side effects. Men who undergo watchful waiting have the same life expectancy as those who pursue treatment immediately.

 

Hormone inhibitors

Some prostate cancer tumors are fed by testosterone, so by blocking it you can starve the tumors. This is through reducing hormone levels, also known as androgen deprivation therapy.

  • Hormone therapy can be used before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor
  • Hormone therapy is used when the cancer has spread
  • Hormone therapy and radiation may be used together to reduce the risk of cancer coming back
  • Adjuvant hormone therapy reduces the chances of high-risk prostate cancer from coming back after a curative treatment

Hormone inhibitors may be pills, injections, or small implants under the skin. Lupron is one of the most common hormone therapy drugs. These keep the body from making hormone. Needles can be anxiety inducing, but the side effects are generally mild. Some people do have side effects that are serious enough that treatment will be stopped.

Hormone therapy tends to decrease in effectiveness after 2-3 years. In order to account for this, some oncologists will have you start and stop therapy. This is called intermittent androgen deprivation.

With an orchiectomy the testicles are removed through a small cut in the scrotum. Most of the male hormones are made in the testicles. This is an outpatient procedure with low risks of complications. However, after surgery men typically have very little sexual desire and aren’t able to have erections. Many men will have hot flashes afterward, which usually go away quickly, but may persist.

Side effects vary widely based on the hormone treatment used and how your body responds to it. Common side effects include loss of sex drive, impotence, hot flashes, shrinking of the penis and testicles, breast tenderness and growth, thinning bones (osteoporosis), weight gain, loss of muscle mass, and an increased risk of circulation problems.

The American Cancer Society has information on what treatment options are still available if your cancer does not respond to hormone therapy.

 

Radiation Treatment

Radiation, or radiotherapy, uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. This type of prostate cancer treatment can be used to shrink tumors, relieve symptoms, and reduce the spread of cancer. 

People respond to radiation very differently. Some people find themselves overwhelmed with exhaustion and requiring significant help from family and friends. Other people continue to work through treatment. The fatigue subsides a month or two after treatment ends.

Radiation damages the cancer cells, but it also damages healthy cells nearby. The main short-term side effects of radiation include reddening of the skin, diarrhea, and difficulty urinating. It’s not uncommon to see blood in your urine or stool. Some patients develop radiation cystitis. These side effects will usually go away shortly after treatment ends. Some people continue to experience problems with stool leakage even after treatment ends.

Radiation can cause bowel complications. It can also cause erectile dysfunction, although problems tend to develop in the future, rather than immediately, as with surgery to remove the prostate. Radiation can damage the nerves around the prostate, as well as the arteries that carry blood to the penis.

While undergoing treatment for radiation, your oncologist may advise you to not allow children to sit on your lap.

 

External Beam Radiation

EBR is typically a daily outpatient treatment. If you live near a cancer center, it could mean stopping by for 15 minutes a day. Treatment length can vary, but it’s typically around 7 to 9 weeks. In some cases, patients may need to undergo radiation as an inpatient procedure.

Imaging tests will be done to see where the cancer is, so the beams can be directed there. Radiation techs may mark the spot with ink or in another way. Two types of advanced radiation are 3D-conformal therapy (3D-CRT) and modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These reduce the damage to nearby tissues. Some oncologists will use proton beam radiation, also called proton therapy, which uses proton beams instead of x-rays. This is thought to reduce damage to nearby tissues, although the evidence is currently inconclusive.

 

Brachytherapy Seeds

With high dose radiation (HDR), also known as brachytherapy or internal radiation therapy, radioactive material is inserted into your prostate to kill the cancer. Your surgeon will use a transrectal ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to place the material in the right spot.

With short-term brachytherapy, tubes are inserted into the skin of the perineum and into the prostate. Your doctor will insert radioactive materials into the tubes, usually 3 times a day for 2 days. The treatment takes about 10 minutes each time.

With permanent brachytherapy, also known as seed implants, radioactive pellets are surgically inserted directly into the prostate. Up to 100 seeds, each the size of a grain of rice, are put into the tumor. They’ll give off radiation for weeks or months and over time will stop being radioactive. They typically don’t cause discomfort because the seeds are so small.

While you’re undergoing brachytherapy, you may need to stay away from small children, pregnant women, and pets. Some people experience burning, pain, or diarrhea, but these are relatively rare.

They can also use gel to physically move the prostate away from the other nearby organs, reducing damage to those organs.

This treatment option for prostate cancer reduces the likelihood of impotence from alternate treatments, like the prostatectomy. Recovery is easier, compared to having your prostate removed.

 

High-intensity focused ultrasound

HIFU is relatively new to the US. It kills cancer cells with ultrasonic beams.

 

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is used to shrink tumors. It may be used on its own or it may be used to shrink tumors so they’re easier to remove with surgery. If the tumor can’t be removed, chemo can slow tumor growth and reduce symptoms, increasing your quality of life and lifespan.

Chemo may come as a pill or through an IV, or a needle in your vein. Since chemo goes through your bloodstream, it can damage cells throughout your body. Your oncologist will try to make the chemo strong enough to kill cancer cells without destroying too many healthy cells. Popular chemotherapies for prostate cancer include docetaxel (Taxotere) and cabazitaxel (Jevtana).

Prostate cancer patients may feel that chemo side effects aren’t as bad as they expect. There are many types of chemo, varying doses, and different frequencies, all with their own side effects. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, taste changes, and exhaustion.

 

Prostate Cancer Vaccine

Sipuleucel-T, or Provenge, is an FDA approved vaccine used to treat advanced prostate cancer that isn’t responding to hormone therapy. The prostate cancer vaccine is not mass-produced, so it’s made for each person who gets it.

Side effects typically only last a day or two, including fever, chills, fatigue, back pain, joint pain, nausea, and headache. Some men will experience problems breathing and high blood pressure.

 

Prostate surgery

Prostate cancer surgery has a high success rate, although the potential for side effects is high. The potential for incontinence and erectile dysfunction can cause major quality of life concerns and have a major impact on the self-esteem of prostate cancer survivors.

Regaining bladder control can take 6 months or more. You will have to exercise your bladder muscles to hold your urine, but you may experience leakage when your bladder is very full or when coughing or sneezing. Some men never fully regain control of their bladder. This can be managed through medication.

About 40% of men will not be able to achieve an erection, maintain an erection, or have a strong enough erection for sexual activity. You can start trying to have erections about 6 weeks after surgery. This is called penile rehabilitation. Loss of the ability to have an erection may not be permanent, as it may come back after as long as two years. Generally, the younger and healthier you are, the more likely it is that you’ll be able to maintain erections after prostate surgery.

Ejaculation becomes impossible after surgery, but this doesn’t mean you can’t have an orgasm. In fact, you can orgasm without having an erection. There are a variety of medications and devices that can help you resume an active sex life after prostate surgery, with or without erections.

Some factors make certain people more likely to need radiation in addition to surgery or even after surgery.

Like any surgery, the use of anesthesia and pain medication carries risk. All surgeries carry the risk of infection.

 

Radical prostatectomy

When surgeons talk about ‘radical’ surgery, they’re talking about ‘the root’ — meaning that a radical surgery removes the entire tumor and some of the tissue around it.

With retropubic surgery, an incision will be made in your lower belly. During retropubic surgery, your doctor will remove lymph nodes near the prostate to check them for cancer. Sometimes doctors will check the lymph nodes for cancer right then, called a frozen section exam. If they do contain cancer, your doctor may not remove the prostate and will instead talk to you about other treatment options. Usually the lymph nodes are simply removed and sent to a lab to be examined later.

If the bundle of nerves on either side of the prostate, which are needed for erections, have not been impacted by the cancer, your surgeon will leave them. This is what they mean when they talk about ‘nerve sparing’ surgery. Nerve sparing surgery does not guarantee that you’ll be able to have and maintain an erection after surgery, but it does improve your chances.

With perineal surgery, your doctor will make an incision between your scrotum and your anus, known as the perineum. This type of surgery is more likely to damage your nerves, but it is often a shorter operation.

With laparoscopic surgery, your surgery will be done through several small cuts, usually 4 small incisions in the abdomen. A camera and special instruments will be used to remove your prostate. The da Vinci system and SMART surgery are two types of robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostate removal.

After a radical prostatectomy, you’ll usually have a catheter for about a month. You’ll also experience pain after surgery, but your treatment team should be ready with a pain management plan to keep you comfortable during recovery.

You may be given postoperative radiotherapy (XRT). XRT increases survival rates in high-risk prostate cancer patients. Internal soreness from XRT can last months, either from the radiation itself or scar tissue forming from surgery. People with XRT are also more prone to UTIs, so it’s important to stay hydrated.

 

Cryosurgery

With cryosurgery, also called cryoblation, your tumor is killed by freezing it. Long, thin needles are inserted into your perineum and into the tumor. They’re then filled with very cold gasses, freezing the tumor. The surgeon will use a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) to guide the needles into position. Men who undergo cryosurgery are more likely to experience erectile dysfunction.

 

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) does not treat the cancer, but it does make it easier to live with prostate cancer. Some tumors grow to block the urethra, making it difficult or impossible to urinate. This surgery removes the blockage. This is a good option for men who aren’t able to have a radical prostatectomy and are having difficulty urinating.

 

Which Prostate Cancer Treatment is Best for You?

Your oncologist will help guide you through the best options for your personal situation. Be sure to ask them about any complementary therapies or lifestyle changes which can increase your likelihood of beating the cancer. If you would like to learn more about using nutrition to keep your body in it’s best possible shape throughout your cancer treatment, book an appointment with one of our certified oncology dietitians

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Susan started Savor Health after losing a close friend to a brain tumor and, through that experience, becoming aware of the significant unmet nutritional needs of people with cancer.  Struck by the fact that her friend was told “nutrition doesn’t matter” and “eat whatever you want,” Susan read the evidence-based literature on the subject, interviewed oncologists, oncology nurses and oncology dietitians, as well as patients and caregivers, and found that, in fact, nutrition does matter in oncology. Armed with solid scientific evidence supporting the clinical and quality of life benefits of proper nutrition, Susan left Wall Street and created Savor Health, an AI-based provider of personalized and clinically appropriate nutrition solutions for cancer patients, their caregivers and health enterprises. Susan brings to Savor Health over 25 years of industry experience in healthcare and business as well as expertise in strategy, finance and management.

Susan is an outspoken and tireless advocate for cancer patients receiving proper nutrition and nutrition support before, during and after treatment. She strongly believes that the U. S. healthcare system requires new innovation to transform it into a more holistic and integrated system of care whereby multiple disciplines coordinate care together for the benefit of the whole patient. As part of this, her goal is for nutrition to be an integral component of such an integrated cancer care delivery system.  Susan’s commitment to the field of oncology extends beyond Savor Health to volunteer work at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in pediatrics and as a runner for Fred’s Team to raise money for research at Memorial Sloan Kettering. Susan participated in the Cancer Moonshot in June of 2016 where she was a breakout session group “igniter” tasked with starting and leading discussion. Susan’s first book, the Meals to Heal Cancer Cookbook, was published in March 2016.

In addition to her role as CEO of Savor Health, Susan speaks nationally about the importance of ensuring proper nutrition in the cancer patient and on topics including leadership and startups. She has been a speaker at the Harvard Medical School’s Career Advancement and Leadership Skills for Women in Healthcare, ESMO World Congress on GI Cancer, BioPharm America, AARP Live @50+, Lake Nona Impact Forum, and IIR ePharma Summit.

Prior to starting Savor Health, Susan had a successful career on Wall Street as a healthcare services investment banker working at prestigious firms including Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette, Wasserstein Perella and Robertson Stephens. Susan earned a B.A. from Duke University and M.B.A. from the University of Virginia’s Darden Graduate School of Business.

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Marissa Buchan is a registered dietitian, with advanced practice certifications in Oncology Nutrition (CSO) and Clinical Research (CCRP). She received her Bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Duke University, and Master’s of Science degree in Clinical Nutrition from New York University. Marissa worked for 10 years at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in both the clinical research and nutrition departments.  In addition to counseling patients before, during, and after cancer therapy, she spearheaded nutrition-research efforts for the bone marrow transplant service. She has co-authored over 20 articles and has a particular interest in the role of nutrition on the intestinal microbiota and its impact on patient outcomes. When Marissa’s not wearing her lab coat, she’s in her apron whipping up healthy and delicious recipes that you can find on her blog, Get Off Your Tush and Cook.

Marissa is Chief Operating Officer of Savor Health where she leads operations working with the technology, clinical, and business development teams and management. Prior to assuming the role of COO in March 2020, Marissa was Vice President, Clinical Research and Operations at Savor Health where she worked closely with Savor Health’s Chief Medical Advisor, Scientific Advisory Board, and Clinical Operations Team to evaluate, design and conduct clinical research.  She also counsels patients on oncology nutrition issues and contributes to the Company website’s clinical content.

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Dr. DeFrance has a unique background including clinical interventional cardiologist, chief medical officer, educator, outcomes researcher and entrepreneur. He has expertise in Lifestyle medicine in which he was board certified in 2020 and is highly interested in the prevention and reversal of chronic disease. Dr. DeFrance also has expertise in appropriate utilization of technology in medicine, healthcare economics, value-based metrics, and educational design and delivery. He worked as Chief Medical Officer for HealthHelp, one of the largest specialty benefit managers in the US, and led large teams of healthcare professionals in writing evidence based appropriate care guidelines and rule sets which improve the quality and safety of medicine for over 20 million people in the US while also creating sustained savings in healthcare. He has also designed clinical decision support systems that are currently in use helping to improve patient care.

In 2018 Dr. DeFrance founded MedMentor Education, a company that provides state of the art CME content using the latest in eLearning science and online delivery platforms. Dr. DeFrance is also the founder and President of Digimedica, a consulting and educational design and delivery company for healthcare professionals, hospitals, and universities. He is passionate about creating systems to optimize knowledge transfer and has won numerous awards for teaching excellence during his career. He is an expert in cardiovascular CT imaging and has taught more than 3,000 physicians how to perform and interpret cardiac CT nationally and internationally and has lectured extensively on this subject.

Dr. DeFrance has a stellar reputation in the medical field and continues work to improve the quality and safety of patient care in the US.

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Alyson is a registered nurse and is certified in oncology nursing (OCN) through the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS). She also has her certification as an ONS Biotherapy and Chemotherapy Provider. Alyson studied nursing at Thomas Jefferson University where she obtained her Bachelor’s of Science in Nursing (BSN). Since starting her nursing career in 2004, Alyson has had a strong dedication and commitment to oncology patients. She has worked inpatient specializing in Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Alyson currently works in outpatient oncology at the North Shore-LIJ Monter Cancer Center. Alyson is part of the clinical team at Savor Health where she counsels patients on oncology and oncology nutrition issues and contributes to website and other Savor Health content.

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Chelsey is a Registered Dietitian and Board Certified Specialist in Oncology nutrition (CSO). She completed her Dietetic Internship at Northwell Health, received her BS in Dietetics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and her MS in Nutrition at Stony Brook University’s School of Medicine. Chelsey works as an outpatient dietitian at Mount Sinai covering all of the downtown cancer services at Mount Sinai Beth Israel and Philips Ambulatory Care Center. Chelsey works with patients and families before, during and after treatment to optimize their nutrition through dietary counseling and support. Chelsey has experience counseling clients with a variety of diagnoses including breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, head & neck cancer, and more. Chelsey also enjoys sharing nutrition knowledge with her peers by running a monthly Employee Wellness program that showcases healthy topics, recipes and food demos.

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Michelle is a Registered Dietitian specializing in oncology. She works as a clinical dietitian at an ambulatory cancer center in New York City and is a consultant for Savor Health. She is passionate about educating oncology patients on the importance of nutrition during their fight against cancer and helping them to optimize their nutrition through all phases of treatment. Michelle received her Bachelor of Science degree in dietetics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and her Master of Science degree in Clinical Nutrition from New York University.

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Denise Sievering is a Registered Dietitian who is board certified in Oncology Nutrition as well as Nutrition Support. A fluent Spanish speaker, Denise joined the Savor Health team to support Spanish speaking cancer patients and to continue to expand the Platform’s nutritional strategies and recommendations in Spanish. Denise holds a Bachelor of Science degree from Rutgers University, and completed her internship at New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYP). Denise started her career as a registered dietitian at NYP-Columbia University Medical Center, primarily covering inpatient Oncology units. Denise also holds a Master of Arts degree in Mental Health Counseling from New York University, and incorporates her advanced training in motivational interviewing and empathic listening in her patient encounters, particularly those whose lives have been forever changed by a cancer diagnosis. A New Jersey native, Denise now resides in sunny San Diego, CA where she works as a part-time outpatient Oncology dietitian at Scripps Health-MD Anderson Cancer Center, and also works as an inpatient dietitian at Kaiser Permanente. In her spare time, Denise can be found at a mom-and-pop taco shop, one of the many local craft breweries, and exploring her new city of San Diego with her husband and her rescue pup, Ripley.

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Karen is a Registered Dietitian, Board Certified Specialist in Oncology Nutrition and registered in New York as a Certified Dietitian Nutritionist. Fluent in Spanish, Karen joined the Savor Health team to support Spanish speaking cancer patients and to continue to expand the Platform’s nutritional strategies and recommendations in Spanish. Karen received her Bachelor of Science degree from Ithaca College and her Master of Science degree from Hunter College. She works as an outpatient oncology dietitian in New York. Karen often works with local community centers to host nutrition programs for cancer survivors and their families, leading classes on how to live healthier lifestyles throughout their continuum of care. The American Institute of Cancer Research selected to showcase one of her many programs at their conference in 2019. Karen has written for and lent commentary to various publications and truly enjoys teaching people how to eat better. She loves to cook and strongly feels that healthy food doesn’t have to taste bad.

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Allie is a Registered Dietitian and a Certified Specialist in Oncology (CSO). She joins Savor in 2023, bringing years of experience from the John Theurer Cancer Center in New Jersey, where she worked with patients with a variety of cancers. Her goal is to help people feel their best, both mentally and physically, when physical health challenges arise. She believes in the power of nutrition ever since the impact it made on her athletic career as a volleyball player during college. Allie graduated with her Bachelor of Science degree from University of Maryland-Baltimore County and has her Master’s degree in Human Nutrition from the University of Wisconsin Stout. She enjoys travelling, enjoying different cuisines, cooking, and hiking and other outdoor activities with her family and dog.

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Julia Penberg is a seasoned healthcare professional with more than 30 years of experience focusing on maximizing operational excellence, leading clinical program development and building strong cross-functional teams. Her previous roles include overseeing the performance of clinical managers and nurse practitioners across multiple markets within United Healthcare-Optum’s Medicare Advantage and dual-eligible special needs populations, payer outreach and program development at Mayo Clinic, ground level specialty hospital development and direct patient care as a family and dermatology nurse practitioner. Julia volunteered as an operating room nurse and nurse practitioner on several mission trips to Romania and was a support group leader for the Kansas City chapter of the International Myeloma Foundation. Her motivation throughout her career has been with wellness promotion, disease risk modification and ensuring the best patient experience across the health continuum. Ms. Penberg received an MBA from the University of Dallas; a MS in Nursing from the University of Kansas and a BS in Nursing from the University of Texas-Austin. She is board certified as a Family Nurse Practitioner.

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Rachel is a Registered Dietitian and Board Certified Specialist in Oncology Nutrition (“CSO”). She joined NYP-Columbia as the outpatient oncology dietitian in 2020 after working at Jamaica Hospital Medical Center for two years. Rachel completed her dietetic internship through Keene State College in 2017. She is pursuing an MS in Integrative Nutrition at Stony Brook University and has a BS in Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise from Virginia Tech. Rachel provides nutrition counseling to all types of oncology patients and helps them understand the mental and physical benefits of nutrition as an ally in their fight against cancer. In her free time she enjoys slow meals with family and friends, Pilates, and tending to her fire escape garden.

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Allie Werner is a Registered Dietitian at Fresenius Kidney Care where she provides medical nutrition therapy diet counseling to patients on Dialysis. She received her Bachelor’s Degree in nutrition from Indiana University and completed her Master’s Degree and dietetic internship at Loyola University Chicago. In her free time she enjoys spending time with friends and family, checking out the amazing food scene in downtown Chicago, and exercising on her Peloton bike.

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Immersed in the tech world for a decade, I've coded, led teams, and honed my skills in architecture and design. As a tech enthusiast, I've seamlessly woven through full-stack projects, fusing my love for code with the art of leadership.

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Mohit is a full-stack developer with expertise in Python and JavaScript, known for his efficient coding and ability to deliver scalable software solutions. His technical contributions are highlighted on GitHub and Stack Overflow, demonstrating his commitment to the tech community and problem-solving skills. With a solid educational foundation and a diverse project portfolio, Mohit excels at navigating complex challenges and is well-equipped to contribute to dynamic software projects.

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Rayna McCann is a Registered Dietitian and Board Certified Specialist in Oncology Nutrition. She is a Registered Yoga Teacher and yoga4cancer certified. She received her BS in Nutrition at Penn State University and her MS from Stony Brook University. For work, Rayna wears many hats in the world of nutrition and worked for years in clinical settings focusing on oncology nutrition. She is also an Adjunct Professor and passionate about inspiring the future of dietitians. Throughout her career, she has received awards recognizing her dedication to patient safety and her contributions to improving malnutrition awareness. In 2022, Rayna was proud to accept the ‘Dietitian of the Year’ award through the Long Island Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Rayna has co-authored abstracts for poster presentations within the American Institute for Cancer Research conference, as well as, the Nutrition and Dietetics Food and Nutrition Conference Expo and subsequent publication. She has enjoyed authoring articles, including an article for The Cure magazine regarding Multiple Myeloma and nutrition. When Rayna is not participating in nutrition related activities, she is dedicated to dog rescue.

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